- Help features
- Frequently asked questions
- Your workspace
- Useful info
- Summarised Open Access Research & Research Data Management policy
- Common audio file types
- Common video file types
In addition to online/linked provision of this document, throughout FURR a Help function will always be present. This links to a page which contains the relevant content from both this document or JISC external links (and some elements based on this document content) to help users access all the relevant features of the repository.
Frequently asked questions
In order to help you find what you are looking for, we have amalgamated some of the common questions in this section.
If you have any other questions or you have not found what you are looking for in the Help or other guidance sections in the repository, please email the FURR admin team at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
How do I request an account to be able to submit records to the repository?
Firstly, you will have to be a Falmouth University academic or alumni, or a member of staff who has been approved by the Professoriate to be able to submit items for publication.
If you meet this criteria, or feel you have a legitimate reason to submit work, then please mail the FURR admin team at: email@example.com with your reason for requiring the ability to submit items for publication and these will be passed to the appropriate member of the Professoriate. Please can you ensure you include the following information:
- Your name
- Your organisation (where applicable)
- Your email address
- Your geographical address (in brief, eg town and country, or in full)
- A contact telephone number (landline or mobile, including country code if outside of the UK)
How do I request more information or complain about/report issues regarding an entry in the repository?
Please contact the FURR admin team on: firstname.lastname@example.org, including a summary of the additional information you require or the nature of your complaint or issue. The summary should include the following information:
- Your name
- Your organisation (where applicable)
- Your email address
- Your geographical address (in brief, eg town and country, or in full)
- A contact telephone number (landline or mobile, including country code if outside of the UK)
- An outline of your complaint or issue with the entry
- The title of the item/publication in FURR
- The item URL stated on FURR
Please see the Notice and Take Down policy in the policy section of the repository for more information on the process we use to handle your complaint or issue.
How do I contact the creator or people involved in an item/piece of work on the repository? (author/artist/photographer/musician etc)
Please contact the FURR admin team on: email@example.com and they will pass your contact details to the originator who will contact you in due course if they wish.
The other sections within the Help pages should support you in using and navigating the repository, however please use the email address provided to contact us should you have any further queries.
When you begin to deposit an item you can select to wait until later before completing the deposit, and you can start on another paper if you wish, returning to the original when you are ready. Any items that you are in the process of depositing will be displayed in your workspace.
If your workspace is empty, which will be the case when you first visit the page, an option will be displayed to make a 'New Deposit'. This button will add an empty record to your workspace and allow you to start editing it.
If there are items already entered in your workspace, you will see a list of the entries with some option buttons. The title of each item you are uploading will be shown in a list. If it has not been given a title the ID (sequential unique record reference) will be displayed.
The option buttons are described below.
This will allow you to view your item as it appears/will appear in the repository once published.
If you select an item (that has been created by you and is in your workspace) and click Delete, that item will be removed from your workspace and discarded completely since it has not been submitted or its status has changed, which means only you can see it. Where you have not submitted or published an item it does not have to go through the removal process for published documents.
You will be asked for confirmation first, before deletion, so the process can be stopped if you accidentally click on it.
If you select one of the records in your workspace and click on Edit, you will be able to carry on entering details and either saving again for later or depositing that item into FURR directly.
If you have completed uploading the item and any associated information as required, you can select the record itself and select this button to deposit it into the repository.
Note that if you have problems with the paper (for instance, if a document attachment or file upload has not worked, and any associated bibliographic information is invalid eg the ISBN), the system will advise what is wrong and you cannot deposit the paper until you have resolved these issues. (The depositing process is described in a separate section).
This section has been provided to amplify some of the information held within the Using FURR page. The data is open source and has been sourced externally to provide an expansion. In the case of the audio and video sections, the data has been provided to amplify the common file types discussed in the data quality section of the Using FURR page.
If you have any other questions, or you have not found what you are looking for in the Help or other guidance sections in the repository, please email the FURR admin team at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Having used the link: repository.falmouth.ac.uk the user is presented with the FURR home page, allowing them to search for items that are promoted and unrestricted within the repository.
Submitting and editing/reviewing users will have to be set up with an account to be able to see further detail and comment or action as required.
When searching for documents, Falmouth University recommends that browsing is a good way to access the stored documents if you do not have a specific idea of what you are looking for within FURR.
There are several ways in which you can browse the repository: by subject, by year, by Falmouth author, and by division (University department).
- To browse the repository either select Browse from the front page or from the navigation bar
- Then choose which property you wish to browse by, for example by subject
- Once you have entered your browsing option, you will be presented with a list of possible categories to search by (eg Art)
- Select one of the options and you will be given a list of relevant research outputs that contain your chosen option
- To access a paper, simply click on its detail/reference in the displayed list
- Within the record data, as part of the abstract, you should be able to see which subjects are pertinent to the document you are currently viewing. Clicking on one of those subjects will take you back to the relevant browse, showing the list of items by subject view. Alternatively, you can click the back browser button
The repository provides you with two levels of searching - simple and advanced. They utilise the same basic functionality but the advanced form of search lets you perform a more comprehensive, targeted search using more data fields.
Access the simple quick search using the Quick Search link on the front page or using the navigation menu on the top banner of the screen. This quick search feature allows you to locate an item where you know a key identifying field/data item (eg author’s name) to bring back a broad set of matching results. Once entering a quick search, you are not then restricted in performing an advanced search to fine tune your search results should a large number of items be returned.
To perform an advanced search, use the Advanced Search link at the top of the simple search page. Alternatively use the Advanced Search link on the top banner of the page.
Text search fields
These are used to search fields like abstract or author. They are fields where there is a text entry area provided for your criteria with a dropdown list/popup menu adjacent to it. When you are ready, type your search terms into the relevant box.
You can decide how the system will use your search terms by selecting one of the options from the dropdown/popup menu just to the right of the input box.
Match all, in any order
This selection means that the system will search for records in which any of the title, abstract or keywords fields contain, for example, both the word 'painting' and 'canvas'.
In this instance, the system will search for any record with either the term 'painting' or 'canvas' in any of the title, abstract or keywords fields.
Lists of values
You can select one or more values from a list of values for the system to search for. If no value in the list is selected, the system will ignore this field (in effect, it will retrieve records with any value of this field.)
In cases where each individual record may have more than one value attached to the list, you can also change search behaviour by selecting 'Any of these' or 'All of these' from the popup menu on the right of the list.
Any of these
If this is selected, any record which has any of the values you select will be retrieved.
All of these
If you select this option, a record must have all the values you choose associated with it to be retrieved.
When you're searching a year field, you can specify a single year or range of years that you're interested in.
|1999||Retrieves only records where the year is 1999|
|1987-1990||Retrieves records with years between 1987 and 1990 inclusive|
|1995-||Retrieves records with years of 1995 or later|
|-1998||Retrieves records with years up to and including 1998|
Data policy for reuse of research materials held in FURR
The following list is provided to indicate how data and material held in the repository can be used.
Commercial re-use of full-text and full-data items may be permitted where it is clearly stated in the record. If you are unsure then contact the repository to obtain clarification at: email@example.com
Access to some items may be restricted for any reason or under temporary embargo (embargo in this instance is taken to mean restricted until, for example, a magazine publishing date, or after a seminar has been held).
Where applicable anyone may access full items free of charge. Reasons an item may not be accessed free of charge include, for example, the item is a published book, and in these cases the record will often have a link to purchase it.
Copies of full items generally can be: reproduced, displayed or performed, given to third parties, and stored in a database in any format or medium. Where they are restricted in any way, comment to that effect will be within the metadata for the record.
Items can be used for personal research or study, educational or not-for-profit purposes without prior permission or charge, provided that the user must ensure they indicate:
- The authors, title and full bibliographic details
- A link to the item record (metadata) is provided
- Any copyright or rights statement attached to the item is clearly stated
Full items must not be harvested by robots except transiently for full-text indexing or citation analysis. In general this will be restricted and you should contact the repository administrator: firstname.lastname@example.org to discuss your reasons for using this method or approach and it will be decided on a case by case basis whether to proceed.
Full items must not be sold commercially in any format or medium without formal permission of the copyright holders. It should be noted that if this occurs, or if the University is made aware of it occurring, we will provide information to the originator that such an event has occurred.
Many of the full items are individually tagged with different rights permissions and conditions so it is pertinent that you check before taking any action.
It is important to note that the repository is not the publisher; it is merely the online archive providing access to the items and links to where they are published as a matter of course.
When quoting any reference that is used, mention of the Falmouth University Research Repository (FURR) is very much appreciated but not mandatory. This will assist other researchers in finding additional data sources as well as broadening our audience to assist in showcasing the Falmouth University academic outputs.
Summarised Open Access Research & Research Data Management policy
Falmouth University understands that open access to both research documents and collected research data allows greater visibility of research to academics and the public and can drive new research opportunities and project collaborations.
Making data open access has demonstrated a marked increase the number of citations and the reuse of data.
The repositories trigger new research opportunities and ensure that data does not have to be recreated unnecessarily. This allows users to build on any existing research and provides further opportunities to identify fresh discoveries.
This policy supports Falmouth University in demonstrating publicly funded research is for the public good, and by being made freely available when it is appropriate in legal, commercial and ethical terms, it does not create any adverse risks to the originators or the University.
This policy is has been created to support researchers in complying with any funding body requirements on open access to research data. It is vital that Falmouth University meets these needs since there is a risk of income loss if funders' aims and expectations are not achieved in this regard.
Falmouth University recognises that taking a best practice approach in research data management can drive up the levels of research excellence. Research data is a most valuable asset and, by using good management practices, it will be of benefit to the researchers, the University and the wider community.
As part of the good practice, research data is stored securely and data loss is minimised. In addition, data is recognised as being of a sufficient standard and has been validated. This ensures that when reuse and sharing of the data occurs, it does not pollute any subsequent research with dubious or poor quality data.
- Falmouth University requires that all researchers should understand and comply with this policy with regards to open access to research data from when they sign up as a participant
- Falmouth University recognises and supports the principles of open access to research items and, where legally, commercially and ethically appropriate, to the research data of its own research community
- It is important that researchers always comply with any funder policies concerning open access publishing and research data management
- Any submitted research data will be managed to Falmouth University standards throughout the life cycle of the research data. The standards indicated in this document, unless specifically designed to be low quality, should follow the guidelines provided in this document
- The standards are a minimum benchmark to ensure that the works of the submitter and the University are showcased in the repository in their best light
- Any research proposals to be included in FURR must include data management plans that identify the capture of the following elements: management, integrity, confidentiality, security, selection, preservation and disposal, commercialisation, costs, sharing and publication of research data, and the production of descriptive metadata to aid discovery and reuse. Each element to be captured when relevant
- Falmouth University is responsible for providing users with training, support and advice on the use of FURR and the guidance on open access and research data management. In addition, the University must provide a backed-up storage service for completed digital research data and for open access research data
- The responsibility for management and research data during any project is shared jointly with investigators and researchers. Where groups of authors are involved, a selected lead author is responsible for complying with the funder and University policy on open access research data
- All researchers should deposit the research papers they produce whilst they are employed at the University on the FURR, as soon as any publisher restrictions will allow. Embargo periods of 6-24 months are common, depending on funder requirements
- To protect the interests of small, independent learned societies and smaller, non-profit publishers, the University supports an embargo period of up to three years
- All data will be offered and assessed for deposit and preservation in a recognised format that is appropriate to the University and national and international repository standards. Exceptions are managed on a case by case basis via the FURR administrator at: email@example.com
- Valid reasons for non-deposit will include commercial, social sensibility and confidentiality issues
- Published research must include a statement describing how and under what terms any supporting research information may be accessed
- Any research data that has been identified for retention must be registered with the FURR, even if the information is retained in a national or international data service or domain repository - also if the data is not suitable for publishing on open access
- Any data which has been identified for retention must not be deposited with any organisations that do not commit to the information being accessed and available for reuse, unless it is a condition of funding or it would jeopardise or otherwise impede commercial interests
- The FURR administrative and operational areas within the University will be responsible for the upkeep and review of this policy. It will be updated regularly and version controlled
Common audio file types
The table below indicates common file types used for audio online - it is by no means exhaustive or complete.
|File extension||Creation company||Description|
|3gp||Multimedia container format that can contain proprietary formats as AMR, AMR-WB or AMR-WB+ but also some open formats.|
|act||ACT is a lossy ADPCM 8 Kbit/s compressed audio format recorded by most Chinese MP3 and MP4 players with a recording function, and voice recorders.|
|AIFF||Apple||Standard audio file format used by Apple. It could be considered the Apple equivalent of wav.|
|aac||The Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 standards. aac files are usually ADTS or ADIF containers.|
|ALAC||Apple||Apple Lossless compression, a lossless compression format from Apple.|
|amr||AMR-NB audio, used primarily for speech.|
|atrac (.wav)||Sony||The older style Sony ATRAC format. It always has a .wav file extension. To open these files, install the ATRAC3 drivers.|
|Au||Sun Microsystems||The standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java. The audio in au files can be PCM or compressed with the μ-law, a-law or G729 codecs.|
|awb||AMR-WB audio, used primarily for speech, same as the ITU-T's G.722.2 specification.|
|dct||NCH Software||A variable codec format designed for dictation. It has dictation header information and can be encrypted (as may be required by medical confidentiality laws). A proprietary format of NCH Software.|
|dss||Olympus||Olympus proprietary format. It is a fairly old and poor codec. Gsm or mp3 are generally preferred where the recorder allows. It allows additional data to be held in the file header.|
|dvf||Sony||A Sony proprietary format for compressed voice files; commonly used by Sony dictation recorders.|
|flac||File format for the Free Lossless Audio Codec, a lossless compression codec.|
|gsm||Designed for telephony use in Europe, gsm is a very practical format for telephone quality voice. It makes a good compromise between file size and quality. Note that wav files can also be encoded with the gsm codec.|
|iklax||iklax||An iKlax Media proprietary format, the iKlax format is a multi-track digital audio format allowing various actions on musical data, for instance on mixing and volumes arrangements.|
|IVS||3D Solar UK Ltd||A proprietary version with Digital Rights Management developed by 3D Solar UK Ltd for use in music downloaded from their Tronme Music Store and interactive music and video player.|
|m4a||An audio-only MPEG-4 file, used by Apple for unprotected music downloaded from their iTunes Music Store.|
|m4p||A version of AAC with proprietary Digital Rights Management developed by Apple for use in music downloaded from their iTunes Music Store.|
|mmf||Samsung||A Samsung audio format that is used in ringtones.|
|mp3||MPEG Layer III Audio. Is the most common sound file format used today.|
|mpc||Musepack or MPC (formerly known as MPEGplus, MPEG+ or MP+) is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160–180 Kbit/s.|
|msv||Sony||A Sony proprietary format for memory stick compressed voice files.|
|ogg||Xiph.Org Foundation||A free, open source container format supporting a variety of formats, the most popular of which is the audio format Vorbis. Vorbis offers compression similar to MP3 but is less popular.|
|Opus||A lossy audio compression format developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and made especially suitable for interactive real-time applications over the internet. As an open format standardised through RFC 6716, a reference implementation is provided under the 3-clause BSD licence.|
|ra & rm||RealNetworks||A RealAudio format designed for streaming audio over the internet. The .ra format allows files to be stored in a self-contained fashion on a computer, with all of the audio data contained inside the file itself.|
|raw||A raw file can contain audio in any format but is usually used with PCM audio data. It is rarely used except for technical tests.|
|TTA||The True Audio, real-time lossless audio codec.|
|vox||The vox format most commonly uses the Dialogic ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation) codec. Similar to other ADPCM formats, it compresses to 4-bits. Vox format files are similar to wave files except that the vox files contain no information about the file itself so the codec sample rate and number of channels must first be specified in order to play a vox file.|
|wav||Standard audio file container format used mainly in Windows PCs. Commonly used for storing uncompressed (PCM), CD-quality sound files, which means that they can be large in size - around 10MB per minute. Wave files can also contain data encoded with a variety of (lossy) codecs to reduce the file size (for example the GSM or MP3 formats). Wav files use a RIFF structure.|
|wma||Microsoft||Windows Media Audio format, created by Microsoft. Designed with Digital Rights Management (DRM) abilities for copy protection.|
Common video file types
This section contains brief explanations of the different video file formats found commonly online, it is included for guidance only and is by no means exhaustive.
Most video files have at least two types of file formats. First there is the container and then the codec which is used inside the container.
The container is what describes the whole structure of the file, and specifies which codecs are being used. The following is a list of some of the more common types of container formats:
Flash video format (.flv)
Because of the cross-platform availability of Flash video players, the Flash video format has become increasingly popular. Flash video is playable within Flash movies files, which are supported by practically every browser on every platform. Flash video is compact, using compression from On2, and supports both progressive and streaming downloads.
AVI format (.avi)
The AVI format, which stands for audio video interleave, was developed by Microsoft. It stores data that can be encoded in a number of different codec’s and can contain both audio and video data. The AVI format usually uses less compression than some similar formats and is a very popular format amongst internet users.
AVI files most commonly contain M-JPEG, or DivX codec’s, but can also contain almost any format.
The AVI format is supported by almost all computers using Windows, and can be played on various players. Some of the most common players that support the avi format are:
- Apple QuickTime Player (Windows and Mac)
- Microsoft Windows Media Player (Windows and Mac)
- VideoLAN VLC media player (Windows and Mac)
- Nullsoft Winamp
Quicktime format (.mov)
The QuickTime format was developed by Apple and is a very common one. It is often used on the internet, and for saving movie and video files. The format contains one or more tracks storing video, audio, text or effects. It is compatible with both Mac and Windows platforms, and can be played on an Apple Quicktime player.
MP4 format (.mp4)
This format is mostly used to store audio and visual streams online, most commonly those defined by MPEG. It Expands MPEG-1 to support video/audio 'objects', 3D content, low bit rate encoding and support for Digital Rights Management.
The MPEG-4 video format uses separate compression for audio and video tracks; video is compressed with MPEG-4 video encoding; audio is compressed using AAC compression, the same type of audio compression used in .AAC files.
The mp4 can most commonly be played on the Apple QuickTime Player or other movie players. Devices that play p4 are also known as mp4 players.
Mpg format (.mpg)
Common video format standardized by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG); typically incorporates MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 audio and video compression; often used for creating downloadable movies. It can be played using Apple QuickTime Player or Microsoft Windows Media Player.
Windows Media Video format (.wmv)
WMV format, short for Windows Media Video was developed by Microsoft. It was originally designed for internet streaming applications, and can now cater to more specialised content. Windows Media is a common format on the Internet, but Windows Media movies cannot be played on non-Windows computer without an extra (free) component installed. Some later Windows Media movies cannot play at all on non-Windows computers because no player is available.
Videos stored in the Windows Media format have the extension .wmv.
3GP file extension (.3gp)
The 3gp format is both an audio and video format that was designed as a multimedia format for transmitting audio and video files between 3G cell phones and the internet. It is most commonly used to capture video from your cell phone and place it online.
This format supports both Mac and windows applications and can be commonly played in the following:
- Apple QuickTime Player
- RealNetworks RealPlayer
- VideoLAN VLC media player
- MIKSOFT Mobile 3GP Converter (Windows)
Advances Streaming Format (.asf)
ASF is a subset of the wmv format and was developed by Microsoft. It is intended for streaming and is used to support playback from digital media and HTTP servers, and to support storage devices such as hard disks. It can be compressed using a variety of video codecs. The most common files types that are contained within an ASF file are Windows Media Audio, and Windows Media video.
Real Media format (.rm)
RealMedia is a format which was created my RealNetworks. It contains both audio and video data and typically used for streaming media files over the internet. RealMedia can play on a wide variety of media players for both Mac and Windows platforms. The realplayer is the most compatible.
Flash Movie format (.swf )
The Flash movie format was developed my Macromedia. This format can include text, graphics and animation. In order to play in web browsers, they must have the Flash plug-in installed. The Flash plug-in comes pre-installed in the latest version of many popular web browsers.
The RealVideo format
The RealVideo format was developed for the internet by Real Media. The format is used for streaming of video at low bandwidths. This sometimes causes the quality of the videos to be reduced.